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The Buttermilk Creek Complex is found within Vertisols. The Clovis horizon is found below Folsom within a 2.5 cm thick layer containing Clovis diagnostics.
The stratigraphy of block A appears to be undisturbed and non-mixed based on multiple lines of evidence including: the lack of artifact sorting by size from the top to bottom of Block A, pedogenesis forming calcium carbonate present only on artifacts in the deepest layers of Block A, and proper chronological ordering of numerous OSL dates. The findings of the excavations were analyzed and interpreted using a holistic approach that featured researchers from many different fields including: Steven L. Feinberg, and Anna Lindquist-who are all geologists or geophysicists; Charles T. The Buttermilk Creek Complex is found below Clovis and defined within a 20 cm thick layer containing artifacts.
Until the discovery of the Buttermilk Creek Complex, which appears to have unquestionable evidence of pre-Clovis habitation, there has been a lack of indisputable evidence of pre-Clovis culture in North America.
There are several sites in the US with possible pre-Clovis remains including: Although all of these sites have evidence for pre-Clovis occupations, controversy has surrounded some of them or their findings have yet to be thoroughly published, which has kept them from being widely accepted as pre-Clovis sites. Friedkin site multiple lines of evidence support its pre-Clovis assignment.
A total of 63 OSL dates have been obtained from the site, and along with diagnostic artifacts found in each stratigraphic layer they have helped to correctly identify the cultural horizons present at the site.
Samples for OSL dating were taken by hammering into the profile walls a copper pipe 10-15 cm long and 2.6 cm in diameter.
The pre-Clovis occupation is found within Block A, which consists of 52 adjacent 1x1 m squares.